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笔记:DeepQA (IBM沃森)(1)概览

David A. FerrucciEric W. BrownJennifer Chu-CarrollJames FanDavid GondekAditya KalyanpurAdam LallyJ. William MurdockEric NybergJohn M. PragerNico SchlaeferChristopher A. Welty: Building Watson: An Overview of the DeepQA ProjectAI Magazine 31(3): 59-79 (2010)

http://www.stanford.edu/class/cs124/AIMagzine-DeepQA.pdf

参前文

另参中文新闻宣传(写的蛮好,很多“细”节)

本文概述了Watson系统的一些基本技术问题。DeepQA是Watson的架构。

Watson有这样一些挑战

  • open-domain ,涉及的知识很多很杂
  • 自然语言问题
  • 要能回答尽可能多的问题,同时答对(两者有矛盾);需要对答案做可信度分析

关键指标: It could answer roughly 70 percent of the questions asked with greater than 80 percent precision in 3 seconds or less. 3秒给对70%的问题做出80%准确性以上的回答

多种技术的集成:information retrieval, natural language processing, knowledge representation and reasoning, machine learning, and computer-human interfaces

时间:2006开始pilot,2007年正式开始,大概三年

知识库大小:2亿pages ,4T字节(并不算大,人脑容量的估计从1T到1000T都有)。根据Google的数据威力理论,如果沃森有4000T数据,量变到质变,说不定更多奇迹会发生。

硬件成本:$3百万刀。很便宜。十年后,这个计算能力大概只需要3000刀。

花絮:2011年2月,沃森和5个国会议员玩了一把,还居然输了一局。想出这个PR点子的,真是天才!

系统框图


人员(加黑的人是我熟悉的):

  • David Ferrucci (PI, UIMA),
  • Eric Brown, (IR)
  • Jennifer Chu-Carroll, (QA, semantic search, NLP)
  • James Fan,  (QA, NLP, KR)
  • David Gondek, (machine learning, statistical modeling, and game theory)
  • Aditya A. Kalyanpur, (KR, NLP, Semantic Web)
  • Adam Lally, (developer, NLP, reasoning)
  • J. William Murdock, (natural-language semantics, analogical reasoning, knowledge-based planning, machine learning)
  • Eric Nyberg,  (text analysis and IR)
  • John Prager, (incorporating user and domain models)
  • Nico Schlaefer, (machine learning)
  • Chris Welty (KR)

更多IBM人员

Andy Aaron, Einat Amitay, Branimir Boguraev, David Carmel, Arthur Ciccolo, Jaroslaw Cwiklik, Pablo Duboue, Edward Epstein, Raul Fernandez, Radu Florian, Dan Gruhl, Tong-Haing Fin, Achille Fokoue, Karen Ingraffea, Bhavani Iyer, Hiroshi Kanayama, Jon Lenchner, Anthony Levas, Burn Lewis, Michael McCord, Paul Morarescu, Matthew Mulholland, Yuan Ni, Miroslav Novak, Yue Pan, Siddharth Patwardhan, Zhao Ming Qiu, Salim Roukos, Marshall Schor, Dafna Sheinwald, Roberto Sicconi, Hiroshi Kanayama, Kohichi Takeda, Gerry Tesauro, Chen Wang, Wlodek Zadrozny, and Lei Zhang.

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watson_(computer)

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