Archive

Archive for the ‘资料’ Category

ISWC数据的24种武器[2010]

2012/01/05 1条评论

原文写于2010-11-08

http://tw.rpi.edu/weblog/2010/11/08/15-ways-to-explore-iswc-2010-data/

15 (and counting) Ways to Explore ISWC 2010 Data

This year at ISWC, when we worked on the metadata, we have a Data Consuming task force to develop tools that can browse/visualize the data many different ways, e.g., faceted browser, filter browser and mobile browser.

As soon as we have the basic dataset published, we immediately get feedback from people on off-the-shelf tools that can work with the data. The list is quickly growing. I collected the screen shots of some working instances (including tools the metadata committee has built) in a slides. I have no doubt that the number “15” will be changed when the main conference begins …. in 2.5 hours! So expect some updates very quick.

What strikes me is that the number and diversity of data browsers currently available, and many of them are clearly reaching the level of maturity for non-expert users to explore. That was not the case even one year ago. So much has been changed for the Semantic Web in 2010!

P.S. 2012-01-05 later I added more browsing tools, making the count 24.

一个Semantic Media Wiki简短教程

2012/01/03 2 条评论

原文写于2009-07-21, 做于RPI Web Science Summer Research Week (http://tw.rpi.edu/wiki/SummerProgram2009)。时间:30分钟;级别:初级。

Jesse Wang等在ASWC做过一个很棒的SMW的完整教程,感兴趣的可以去看他的Slidesahre主页:http://www.slideshare.net/jiaxinwang

讲座照片:http://tw.rpi.edu/wiki/Image:IMG_0881.jpg

P.S. 今天 Semantic MediaWiki 1.7.0 发布。

用语义维基来写应用

2011/12/27 1条评论

摘要:语义网应用适合于那种数据不断动态变化的情况。另外一个特点,就是它可以打破应用间的界限,打破服务间的界限。用语义维基(Semantic Wiki)做应用的一些例子,本身谈不上什么价值,只是这种思路,我觉得以后可能会有用。

注:关于语义维基基础,参《一个Semantic Media Wiki简短教程》(2009-07-21)

今天和人聊到语义网应用的一些特点,我举了用语义维基(Semantic Wiki)做应用的一些例子。下面引用的,大部分来自我以前的一篇文章:

Jie Bao, Li Ding, Rui Huang, Paul Smart, Dave Braines, Gareth Jones. A Semantic Wiki based Light-Weight Web Application Model, In Proceedings of the 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference, pp. 168-183, 2009

文章里面举了几个应用实例,比如地图应用,本体编辑器。

首先要指出,这个文章并不是说语义维基现在就是很好的开发工具了,或者语义网的应用都应该是这个模式。具体的开发工具,比如Semantic MediaWiki (SMW),还在很早期的阶段,比如IDE啊,Library啊(比如可重用的模板),这些都还没有,也许再过十年才能成熟——可以类比于1995年的JavaScript,直到后来发展为AJAX,才成为不可或缺的利器。这里想讲的,是一种范式(paradigm),就是我觉得,好的语义应用可能被开发的一种方法。

我以前讲过,语义网应用适合于那种数据不断动态变化的应用。你很难定义一个固定的数据schema,然后一劳永逸。相反,你的应用应该有与时俱进的能力。如果用户的需要变化了,你的应用应该可以非常迅速的跟进,甚至不需要你在应用上做什么事,也不需要用户做什么事,而是在用户本身产生的数据里,就体现了这种变化,被你的应用捕捉。

这种与时俱进的能力,要求应用开发也要走一条新路。比如基于语义维基的开发,就把数据的建模,业务的逻辑,界面的构造,大量地转移到“用户”可以控制的领域(见下图)。具体的讲,就是用一大堆浏览器里就可以编辑的模板,把应用变成随时、随地可以更新的东西。这样,传统的服务器和客户端的界限已经模糊了,数据和元数据、业务逻辑(以前通常都是写死在代码里的)的界限也模糊了。这样带来的好处,就好比在浏览器里写博客之于传统的用FTP上传HTML页面,并不是说真的实现了什么原来不能实现的功能,而是提高了演进的能力,降低了演进的代价。

另外我觉得语义应用的一个特点,就是它可以打破应用间的界限,打破服务间的界限。我们在RPI做的实验性开发,在维基上做了博客、任务列表、日历、邮件列表、文献管理系统、个人主页系统,等等很多不同的信息管理工具,而底层的数据,无非都是维基页面(wiki page)。这样的建模,不再是基于“文件”这样一种组织模式,而是统一的,把一切数据的组织都看作关系,而应用不过是大的关系网的一个映射。所以日历啊,邮件啊,都不过是一些模板在一个统一的结构化知识库上的用户界面构造而已(见下图)。你很难说清楚,到底那个triple是属于那个应用的。而一个应用里的改变(比如日历),也就可以自动地激发另一个应用里的改变(比如个人主页)。什么是语义?关系就是语义,通过现有关系推导出新的关系是更强的语义。把数据的结构彻底从应用的界面上解放出来,把智能从代码里转移到数据本身里,这是一种非常有力量的变化。当然,我们用维基做的这些玩具应用,本身都谈不上什么价值,只是这种思路,我觉得以后可能会有用。

这又两年多过去了,又有了新的想法。语义网的应用开发,应该会催生新的编程模式,新的编程语言——就如同Web本身催生了很多新的语言。现在看到的,都只是雏形,难用,但有合理性内核,应该不断加以发展。

2009年论文完整的幻灯片在这里:

分类:语义网, 幻灯片

维基中不可承受之轻

2011/12/22 2 条评论

The Unbearable Lightness of Wiking

这是我2010年5月在Spring SMW Conference 2010 (MIT)上的一个幻灯片。总结了KAHT项目(由DARPA支持)关于语义维基(Semantic Wiki)可用性的一个实验的结果。我们发现,普通用户的语义建模能力,很难产生有意义的语义数据。这不仅是系统本身(Semantic MediaWiki)的问题,更深刻的,是人的认知能力的问题。很多在知识表现学者想当然的问题,在“普通人”,会有完全不同的,“千奇百怪”的想法。

要补充一下:我这个幻灯,现在看,里面的结论(i.e., 需要对SMW做扩展),不见得正确。更多应该思考的,是元数据生态周期和用户心理的问题。

Towards Webtop [2008]

2011/11/24 2 条评论

http://tw.rpi.edu/wiki/Blog:Baojie/Item-50
http://tw.rpi.edu/weblog/2008/07/25/towards-webtop/

2008-07-25

Some of our Tetherless World researchers including me have just written a short paper to sell the idea of constructing a “webtop” using semantic technologies. In short, a webtop is a desktop on the web, that does similar jobs such as managing files, doing word processing, managing contacts, scheduling tasks, emailing, etc. Please see some examples of webtops with pretty GUIs.

Almost one decade ago, there has been hot for a while for the concept of “network computer”. At that time, a network computer means some low-end computer with limited storage and computational capacity that relying on the network to get great power. The webtop idea reminds me of network computer as they, while are different in many aspects, share the same idea of powering users with networked infrastructure. Ten years ago, this vision was tested with physical computers but largely failed, while today, with the advance of technologies, is revived by allowing users to create virtual computers that only exist on the websphere. I have many reasons to believe this time it will not only survive, but also prevail.

[P.S. 2011-11-24 It’s dubbed “Cloud” this time. 也就是坑爹的“云”忽悠。其实云才不是关键。关键是知识管理,把知识从用户行为和生成数据中提取出来(注意,不是挖掘,而是提取,相对容易)。]

One reason is from my personal experience. From about two years ago, I stopped installing many software that have been with me for many years: Encarta is replaced by Wikipedia.com, Outlook is replaced by Gmail, MS Street is replaced by Google Maps, MS Word is replaced by writing in wiki, Powerpoint is replaced by online latex writing with the Beamer package, among a long list of other things. Browser is the application I stayed for more than 80% of time when I’m on my computers. There is indeed a strong need for me to organize all such online applications and data — simply bookmarking is barely a solution. I need something that can organize them, enable me quick access to them, and last but not least, pretty and neat. A webtop does exactly those things.

How semantic technologies help in providing a webtop? Actually, long before the term “ontology” getting popular, users are already creating ontologies on daily basis: email classification, creating file folder trees, grouping contacts or naming a photo as “Wedding picture at Troy”, all those efforts are creating relations between things or annotating a “meaning” to an entity. With semantic technologies, those relations and annotations can be made explicit so that data can be more easily managed and queried. For example, I may query that “find all 2005 photos of my friends”, or “show all meetings (even if they are not called meeting, such as “briefing”) in the past month”. A webtop based on semantic technologies will make such an ability universal to any application on its top.

[P.S. 2011-11-24 嗯,就是语义搜索个人“知识”库。这个不远的将来就可能出现在市场上]

There have been controversies about semantic web ever since that term is coined. I think this is partly because the semantic web community as a whole, failed to provide enough end-user friendly tools that can do something helpful in daily life. I wish to see more tools to help daily web activities: semantic email, semantic blog, semantic calender, semantic abstract of news (a little more than RSS), tagging files (picture, mp3,…) with taxonomy, etc. Even more important, to survive, such an application should never ask users to learn RDF or anything needs more than 3 minutes to understand. Bring such applications together, it’s a webtop. I believe something like this is one of the killer apps the community has long been waiting for.

[P.S. 2011-11-24 现在回来看这个三年前的blog,觉得后悔,为什么浪费了三年不实现这些想法。也不是不想实现,实在是“执行力”不到——比如支配自己时间的权力和能力,比如稳定后方基础的工作,比如将想法转化为现实可行的技术配置,比如PPT的忽悠能力,比如人脉…这些都是今后一年我要重点学习的东西]

{{BlogInfo
|page=Blog:Baojie
|title=Towards Webtop
|visitor=User:Baojie
|date=2008/07/25 00:00 EDT
|source=http://tw.rpi.edu/weblog/2008/07/25/towards-webtop/
|tag=Jie’s_SW_Blog, Webtop
}}

参考:

Jie Bao, Li Ding, Deborah L. McGuinness, James A. Hendler. Towards Social Webtops Using Semantic Wiki, In International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), Poster Track, 2008 (Download) (Slides) .

Enhanced by Zemanta

语义网与推荐(3)推荐系统基础

2011/11/21 1条评论

找了一些入门的slides来看。语义不语义,其实关系不大

Recommender Systems http://www.slideshare.net/T212/recommender-systems-1311490 【非常基础】

Recommender Engines http://www.slideshare.net/antiraum/recommender-engines 【同上,一般方法综述】

Tutorial: Recommender Systems http://www.recommenderbook.net/media/Tutorial_IJCAI_2011.pdf 【IJCAI 2011上的教程,by Dietmar Jannach & Gerhard Friedrich】

王守崑 – 豆瓣在推荐领域的实践和思考 http://www.slideshare.net/clickstone/ss-2756065 【挺不错,有些经验之谈】

How to build a recommender system http://www.slideshare.net/blueace/how-to-build-a-recommender-system-presentation 【Wakoopa;关于数据的选择,有趣】

Music Recommendation Tutorial  http://www.slideshare.net/ocelma/music-recommendation-tutorial 【虽然是说音乐,技术是通用的】

Music Recommendation and Discovery in the Long Tail http://www.slideshare.net/ocelma/celma-ph-d-defense-1067735 【Oscar Celma的博士答辩,2009】

Social Recommender Systems Tutorial – WWW 2011 http://www.slideshare.net/idoguy/social-recommender-systems-tutorial-www-2011-7446137

Google Tech Talk on Social Recommendation http://www.slideshare.net/dancarroll56/google-tech-talk-on-social-recommendation

更多

Enhanced by Zemanta
分类:语义网, 幻灯片 标签:

资源:DL-Learner

2011/05/21 1条评论

一些关于从ABox学习TBox的资源。

目的:语义压缩。所有的Machine Learning,在本质上都是压缩算法。

DL-Learner: http://dl-learner.org/Projects/DLLearner/OnePageIntroduction

Jens Lehmann:http://jens-lehmann.org [publications]

略读了一下,感觉不是很有说服力(convincing)。对所谓Re nement Operator,觉得没有什么特别的。由于这本质是一个搜索问题,文中却没有什么讨论搜索策略。没有和统计方法和信息论结合,我觉得是很大的弱点。

分类:资料,